Penalty cards are most commonly used
by referees to indicate that a player has committed an offence. In
fencing, if a
fencer breaks a rule then a card is handed out. The color of the
card shown to the fencer and the scorekeeper is based on the severity of
the penalty or the number of minor penalties. The color determines
the penalty which will apply and penalties will range from minor to
severe. The fencer can lose a bout because of penalty points.
Penalty cards in fencing:
If a fencer receives
a warning for a minor offense, a yellow card is
shown to that fencer and the score keeper.
card warning is valid for the remainder of the bout. Yellow cards are
awarded for Category 1 penalties such as making bodily contact with the
opposing fencer when not permitted, leaving the strip without
permission, or refusing to obey the referee. A
yellow card can also be awarded when, at the first call by the referee,
a fencer does not present himself on the strip ready to fence.
Repeated minor rule
infractions, yellow card
offenses, result in
fencer receiving a red card and his opponent receives a point.
penalties against safety or the order of the competition,
can bring about a
red or black card without the fencer ever
receiving a yellow card
This is the
result of two red cards or a very serious offense such as
deliberate brutality, unsportsmanlike conduct, or
using fraudulently modified equipment.
Black cards cause
expulsion from the remainder of the competition and may result in
disciplinary action by the fencer's governing body.
listing of infraction and penalties is found in the USFA Rulebook.